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Prevalence

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Pathological Gambling Prevalence in New Jersey – 1990 Final Report. Phyllis Reilly and Frank Guida. New Jersey Department of Higher Education. Pathological gambling is first defined, and then a discussion of its origins is presented. The review of gambling literature continues with the personality and reasoning characteristics of pathological gamblers and the effects of pathological gambling on family members. Nine DSM-IV criteria were used for the first time as indicators of pathological gambling. The study classified 5.8 percent of its respondents as "problem gamblers," 1.9 percent as "potential pathological gamblers" and 1.2 percent as "probable pathological gamblers." These findings seem to indicate a lower incidence and prevalence of pathological gambling in New Jersey in 1990 in comparison to other states where surveys were taken.

A Study of Problem and Pathological Gambling Among the Citizens of Indiana Associated with Participation in the Indiana State Lottery. Indiana Department of Mental Health. Indianapolis. Nov. 1990. A survey of more than 1,000 Indiana residents found only one meeting the DSM-IV criteria for "probable pathological" gambling. The questions were directed entirely at lottery play and cannot be taken as a measure of overall pathological gambling in Indiana. This report also contains a review of the literature on pathological gambling through 1990.

Adult Survey of Minnesota Gambling Behavior: A Benchmark, 1990. Laundergan, Schaefer, Eckhoff and Pirie. Minnesota Department of Human Services, November, 1990. A sample of 1251 respondents from nine Minnesota counties were surveyed shortly after the start of the Minnesota Lottery scratch games but prior to the start of online (numbers) games. Males, non-whites and respondents under the age of 34 were all overrepresented among problem gamblers and potential and probable pathological gamblers based on a modified version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-M). Overall 0.9 percent of the respondents were identified as probable pathological gamblers (SOGS score of 5 or more), 0.6 percent as potential pathological gamblers (SOGS score of 3 or 4) and 7 percent as problem gamblers (SOGS score of 1 or 2). 37 percent were identified as non-bettors and 54.6 percent as gamblers with no problem.

Comparison of 1985 and 1989 Minnesota Survey Findings on Gambling in Minnesota. J. Clark Laundergan and Karla F. Eckhoff. Department of Human Services, July, 1991. The comparison showed an increase in gambling activity during the five-year period. Playing the lottery (out of state; Minnesota's lottery began after this survey was taken) showed the largest increase (32 percent), followed by horse or dog race betting (20 percent). The results also indicate increased problems associated with gambling.

Compulsive Gambling. Henry R. Lesieur. Society p43-50, May/June, 1992. This article explores the costs of compulsive gambling to society and to individual gamblers. One study of Gamblers Anonymous members found that pathological gamblers are responsible for an estimated 1.3 billion dollars in insurance-related fraud per year. Children of pathological gamblers were more likely to have gambling problems. Studies of prisoners, alcohol and drug abusing inpatients, Veteran's Administration inpatients and Gamblers Anonymous members found that approximately two-thirds of non-incarcerated and 97 percent of incarcerated pathological gamblers admit engaging in illegal behavior to finance their gambling activities. Surveys indicate that 1 to 2 percent of the adult population are probably pathological gamblers and 2 to 3 percent are problem gamblers.

Gambling Involvement and Problem Gambling in Montana. Rachel A. Volberg. Montana Department of Corrections and Human Services, Sept. 1992. The lifetime prevalence rate for problem gamblers was 2.3 percent and 1.3 percent for pathological gamblers. The current rates were 1.5 percent and 0.7 percent respectively. No significant differences in lifetime problem and probable pathological gamblers were found in terms of gender, however, they were significantly more likely to be under the age of 30 than the general population.

Final Report: Prevalence Study – Problem Gambling. Prepared for the Department of Finance, Province of New Brunswick by Baseline Market Research Ltd. Nov. 16, 1992. This study used the South Oaks Gambling Screen to estimate a "probable pathological" gambling rate of 2 percent (lifetime) and 1.37 percent (current). The report also summarizes overall gambling rates and preferences in the Province of New Brunswick.

The Treatment of Problem and Pathological Gambling in New Brunswick: Approaches to Establishing Services. Rachel A. Volberg. Gemini Research, December 28, 1992. The study found that 87 percent of the population has participated in gaming. Additionally, problem and probable pathological gamblers were more likely to be men, under the age of 35, unemployed and never married than the general population. They are also less likely to have graduated from high school and more likely to be earning less than $20,000 annually than the general population. The most likely gaming activities for problem and probable pathological gamblers in New Brunswick were card games and video gaming machines. The lifetime prevalence rate for problem and pathological gamblers was 6 percent, while the current rate was 4.5 percent. A two-phase approach to implement services for treatment was recommended in this report. Phase One would establish funding, develop a public educational campaign and establish prevention efforts in schools. It would also provide training in identifying the problem in clients for professionals in health related services. Phase Two would include providing training for treatment providers, establish a certification program for counselors and evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts.

Gambling and Problem Gambling in Washington State. Rachel A. Volberg. Washington State Lottery, Feb. 1993. This report presents the findings of a statewide survey conducted to assess gambling involvement and problem gambling in Washington State. The survey showed a 91 percent lifetime participation rate. Gamblers were found to most likely be white, over the age of 30, high school graduates and to have annual household incomes of more than $25,000. More than 5 percent of the adult population were classified as lifetime problem or probable pathological gamblers, and the combined "current" problem and pathological rating was 2.8 percent.

Establishing Treatment Services for Pathological Gamblers in Manitoba. Rachel Volberg. Manitoba Lotteries Foundation, June 8, 1993. The prevalence study indicates that 1.3 percent of Manitoba adults are possible pathological gamblers. A two-phase approach to implementing services for treatment was recommended. Phase One would establish Funding, Organizational Responsibility, Public Education, Prevention, Diagnostic Training and Crisis Intervention. Phase Two would expand to include Treatment Training, Certification, Outpatient Treatment, Evaluation and ongoing Research.

Adult Survey of Minnesota Problem Gambling Behavior; A Needs Assessment: Changes 1990 to 1994. Michael O. Emerson, J. Clark Laundergan and James M. Schaefer. Minnesota Department of Human Services, Sept. 1994. This report is an assessment of gambling prevalence in 1994 and the changes that occurred between 1990 and 1994. The percentage of the population gambling in the last month increased from 23 percent in 1990 to 41 percent in 1994. Also of significance is the increase from 1.6 percent in 1990 to 3.2 percent in 1994 for gamblers with "increasing negative consequences" (SOGS score of 3 or 4). There was no statistically significant change in the percentage of probable pathological gamblers. Common characteristics of problem and pathological gamblers were: Native American heritage, lower education, higher income, younger age, addictive behavior and depression, being single or divorced, being white and being male.

Prevalence of Pathological Gambling and Related Problems Among College Students in the Quebec Metropolitan Area. Robert Ladouceur, Dominique Dubé and Annie Bujold. Canadian Journal of Psychiartry, Vol. 39(5),p1-5, June 1994. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was used to determine the prevalence of pathological gambling among 1,471 Quebec college students. This study found an overall prevalence rate of 2.8 percent, with the percentage of pathological gamblers higher among males (5.7 percent) than females (0.6 percent). Addictive behaviors like pathological gambling, alcohol and drug abuse, and eating disorders were found to be related.

Epidemiological Surveys of Pathological Gambling: Critique and Suggestions for Modification. Henry R. Lesieur. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 10(4), p385-398, Winter 1994. This article discusses the inaccuracies presented in the epidemiological studies of problem and pathological gamblers due to fundamental flaws or biases. Lesieur speculates that these surveys seriously underestimate the extent of problem and pathological gambling, but concludes that there does not now exist a way to reliably estimate the number of pathological gamblers.

Gambling and Problem Gambling in Georgia. Rachel Volberg. Georgia Department of Human Resources, May 2, 1995. For the first time in Georgia, 1,550 adults were surveyed using the revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) to assess gambling and problem gambling in Georgia. Lifetime gambling participation in Georgia (74 percent) was found to be lower than in any other United States jurisdiction surveyed since 1990. The lifetime prevalence rate of problem and probable pathological gambling in Georgia was 4.4 percent, while the "current" prevalence rate of problem and probable pathological gambling was 2.3 percent of the adult population.

Monitoring Gambling Among Minnesota Adolescents. Ken Winters, Randy Stinchfield and L. Kim. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 11(2), p165-183, Summer, 1995. Pre-Lottery and post-Lottery gambling behavior is compared in a prospective sample of 532 Minnesota youths. Key findings related to the comparisons are: 1) No statistically significant changes were seen for total gambling frequency, rate of "regular" (weekly or daily) gambling, and rate of potential pathological gambling; 2) Significant decreases in gambling frequency occur for several non-legal games and two legal games (bingo and pull tabs); and 3) 28 percent of underage youths who play scratch tabs, pull tabs or the Lottery purchase these games themselves, while 73 percent use parents to access them.

Gambling and Problem Gambling in Iowa: A Replication Survey. Rachel A. Volberg. Iowa Department of Human Services, July, 1995. The report presents the results of a 1995 follow-up survey to a 1989 statewide survey on problem gambling. The survey scored 1.9 percent of Iowa adults as "lifetime probable pathological gamblers" and 1.0 percent as "current probable pathological gamblers." The 1989 survey, by contrast, found 0.1 percent as "lifetime probable pathological gamblers." The study also found significant increases in gambling participation over the six year period. This is one of the few studies to include stock market investing as a type of gambling.

Problem Gambling Study: Final Report. Criterion Research Group. Manitoba Lotteries Corporation, Sept. 1995. Using the South Oaks Gambling Screen, researchers found no change in problem gambling in Manitoba from 1993 to 1995. While 92 percent of Manitoba adults had gambled in their lifetime, 1.9 percent were found to be "probable pathological gamblers" and 2.4 percent "problem gamblers" as defined by SOGS.

Gambling in Ontario: A Report from a General Population Survey on Gambling-Related Problems and Opinions. Jackie Ferris, Tania Stirpe and Anca Lalomiteanu. Addiction Research Foundation, Problem and Compulsive Gambling Project, Revised 1996. 1,030 Ontario adults were surveyed for this study, which found about 1 percent of the Ontario population with "serious gambling problems." Of particular interest in this study is the use of three different measures of gambling problems: the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and the "Life Areas Problem Measure." All agreed on the 1 percent problem level.

The Impact of the Windsor Casino on Adult Gambling in the City of Windsor. Richard Govoni and G. Ron Frisch. The Problem Gambling Research Group of the Psychology Department at the University of Windsor, May 23, 1996. This report is Phase II of a multi-year project to assess the impact of the Windsor Casino on its community. Phase I (pre-casino) and Phase II (post-casino) used the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) as the basis for measuring recent and lifetime gambling behaviors. A comparison of survey responses of people before and one year after the casino opened showed no statistically significant differences in either Problem or Pathological gambling levels. The casino approval rate increased from 54.2 percent of the population to 65.1 percent one year after the opening, with the disapproval rate decreasing from 30.2 percent to 18.6 percent. The average per capita spending increased from $549 to $599 after the casino opened. Increases in yearly expenditure were not evenly distributed across the sample; the greatest increases were in the highest quartile of expenditure.

Prevalence Studies of Problem Gambling in the United States. Rachel A. Volberg. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol.12(2), p111-128, Summer 1996. This article summarizes the results of the prevalence studies that have been completed in the United States since 1980. The surveys indicate that problem and probable pathological gamblers are more likely to be male, under the age of 30, non-Caucasian and unmarried than the general population. They are also less likely to have completed high school and more likely to have started gambling at a significantly younger age. Volberg concludes that the SOGS is outdated and suggests that a variety of methods should be used in future research.

The Prevalence of Pathological Gambling in Canada. Robert Ladouceur. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol.12(2), p129-142, Summer 1996. This article reviews the gambling prevalence studies that have been conducted in Canada. The prevalence rates of pathological gamblers range from 0.8 percent to 1.7 percent in Canadian studies, which are similar to prevalence rates of pathological gamblers in the United States. The author associates increases in the prevalence rates with the increases in gambling activities and recommends an investment in research and gambling treatment.

Prevalence Studies and the Development of Services for Problem Gamblers and Their Families. Rachel A. Volberg, Mark G. Dickerson, Robert Ladouceur and Max W. Abbott. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol.12(2), p215-231, Summer 1996. This article summarizes services available in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States for problem gamblers and their families. The services provided have largely been the response of governments to the prevalence studies performed within their jurisdictions.

Gambling and Problem Gambling Among Georgia Adolescents. Rachel A. Volberg. Georgia Department of Human Services, June 25, 1996. More than 1,000 Georgia adolescents aged 13 to 17 were interviewed by telephone to assess gambling and problem gambling among Georgia's youth. The study found that the proportion of Georgia adolescents who gamble was lower than among Georgia adults or among adolescents in other states. Adolescent gamblers were most likely to be older, male and have weekly incomes of $50 or more. Males, regular users of alcohol and drugs, and those whose parents gamble were most likely to experience gambling difficulties. Seventy percent of the adolescent problem gamblers have felt nervous about their gambling, 45 percent believed they have a gambling problem and 14 percent have desired or sought treatment for a gambling problem, suggesting a minimum of 1,200 adolescents who would access services if available.

New Mexico Survey of Gambling Behavior - 1996. New Mexico Department of Health, 1996. A total of 1,305 persons were surveyed resulting in 1,279 completed surveys. To assess the severity of problems relating to gambling activity, the indicators from the DSM-IV classification were grouped into categories. The results of the survey showed that an estimated 66 percent of adult New Mexicans have engaged in some form of gambling in the last year. Casino gambling, lotteries and slot/video machines were the most commonly reported gambling activities. Of persons who gambled in the past year, 5 percent reported serious problems related to gambling and 17 percent reported low/moderate gambling problems. The results also indicated a strong association between gambling behavior under age 21 and the development of serious gambling problems.

Gambling and Problem Gambling in New York: A 10-Year Replication Survey, 1986 to 1996. Rachel A. Volberg. New York Council on Problem Gambling, July, 1996. Gambling participation rose to 90 percent in the 1996 survey, up from 84 percent of the participants in the 1986 survey. In New York in 1996, 4.7 percent of the respondents scored as lifetime problem gamblers and 2.6 percent scored as lifetime probable pathological gamblers, compared with 1986 percentages of 2.8 and 1.4 respectively. The 1996 survey showed 2.2 percent of the respondents as current problem gamblers and 1.4 percent as current probable pathological gamblers (this information was not taken in the 1986 survey). The greatest distinction in the "current" and "lifetime" classifications are that current problem and pathological gamblers are just as likely to be women as men. Comparisons of the surveys showed significant increases in lottery and casino participation and significant decreases for bingo and dice games.

Gambling in Texas: 1995 Survey of Adult and Adolescent Gambling Behavior. Lynn S. Wallisch. Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, July, 1996. This study is a comparison of the 1992 and 1995 surveys on gambling behaviors. In 1995, 3 percent of adults in Texas were deemed problem or pathological gamblers as defined by SOGS. This is a slight increase over the 2.5 percent found in 1992. For adolescents, rates of problem gambling declined from 5 percent in 1992 to 2.3 percent in 1995. Additionally, the survey concluded that the introduction of the Texas State Lottery has had little effect on other forms of gambling. Lottery play has been added to prior gambling participation, rather than displacing other gambling activity.

Problem Gambling Survey 1996, Final Report. Angus Reid Group, Inc. British Columbia Corporation, July 29, 1996. The results of this survey in comparison with the 1993 survey show no substantial increase in the prevalence of problem gambling in the Province. Participation measurements showed stability or decline for most categories, suggesting that the gaming market has reached a plateau or mature phase, where participation is increasingly centered among enthusiasts. More than any other activity, local casinos appear to be an increasingly likely focus for the individuals at risk for problem gambling. Problem gamblers tend to be male, of non-European ancestry with lower levels of education and household income than the general population.

The Prevalence of Problem and Pathological Gambling: A Critical Analysis. Michael B. Walker and Mark G. Dickerson. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 12(2), p 233-249, Summer 1996. This article discusses the author's belief in the inaccuracy of prevalence studies. The authors' criticisms are: 1) prevalence studies should measure the "current" rate rather than "lifetime" experience; and 2) the accuracy of the South Oaks Gambling Screen in determining a pathological gambler. Walker and Dickerson suggest that future research should comprise a detailed assessment of expenditures by product and develop profiles of the increasing level of risk of negative consequences of different levels of expenditure for each type of gambling.

Pathological Gambling in Louisiana: An Epidemiological Perspective. James R. Westphal and Jill Rush. Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society. p353-358, August 1996. A review of telephone interview data using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) on a random sample of 1,818 Louisiana adults indicated that 4.8 percent of adults over the age of 21 years have gambling disorders, compared to 14.4 percent of 18-to-21-year-olds. Pathological gamblers were found more likely to be male, less than 30 years old, non-white, unmarried and less likely to have graduated from high school than nonproblem gamblers.

Gambling Behavior of Adolescent Gamblers. Richard Govoni, Nicholas Rupcich and G. Ron Frisch. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 12(3), p305-317, Fall 1996. An adolescent version of the SOGS (SOGS-RA) was given to 965 high school students, aged 14 to 19 years, in Windsor, Ontario. Problem gambling levels were estimated at 8.1 percent of the sample. Males showed significantly higher rates of problem, and at-risk gambling behavior. Adolescents reporting excessive parental gambling were twice as likely to have problem or at risk gambling rates.

Problem Gambling in New Brunswick; Review and Recommendations. Rachel A. Volberg. New Brunswick Department of Finance. October 1996. This report summarizes the findings of replication studies in North America and addresses the relevance of particular findings in New Brunswick to the continuing development of services for problem gamblers in the province. The report concludes with recommendations for the refinement of services for problem gamblers in New Brunswick, which include establishment of a secure funding source for these programs, education and treatment initiatives and the monitoring of problem gambling in the future.

Final Report Prevalence Study Problem Gambling Wave 2. Baseline Market Research Ltd. New Brunswick Department of Finance, October, 1996. This study was conducted to update the 1992 survey of problem gambling prevalence in New Brunswick and to collect information for comparison with 1992's data. The results showed an increase of 5 percent in the number of people who had ever gambled from 1992. Lifetime problem gamblers declined from 6 percent in 1992 to 5 percent in 1996. Using the current measure, the 1996 study showed 4.1 percent classified as problem gamblers compared to 4.5 percent in 1992. The profile of the problem gambler remained unchanged and continues to most likely be male, single, under 44 years of age and unemployed with no more than a high school education. This study also assessed public awareness of problem gambling programs.

Gambling and Problem Gambling in Colorado ­ Report to the Colorado Department of Revenue. Rachel A. Volberg. Gemini Research, Roaring Spring, PA. August 28, 1997 This report consists of both a survey of gambling habits of Coloradans and the administration of the South Oaks Gambling Screen to determine levels of pathological gambling. The survey found 91 percent of the adults in Colorado have participated in one or more of 13 gambling activities, with 81 percent participating in the past year. According to the SOGS criteria, 1.8% qualify as lifetime probable pathological gamblers and 0.7% as current probable pathological gamblers.

Estimating the Prevalence of Disordered Gambling Behavior in the United States and Canada: A Meta-analysis. Howard J. Shaffer, Matthew N. Hall, Joni Vander Bilt. Harvard Medical School Division on Addictions: December, 1997. Shaffer et al reviewed 120 North American studies on the prevalence of pathological and problem gambling. From these studies they extrapolate an adult lifetime pathological gambling rate of 1.6 percent and a past-year rate of 1.14 percent.

Refining Prevalence Estimates of Pathological Gambling. Rachel Volberg and Henry Steadman. Am J Psychiatry, p502-505, April, 1988. The SOGS testing of a sample of New York State residents, classified 2.8 percent of the sample as "problem gamblers" and 1.4 percent as "probable pathological gamblers." Based on these findings, it was estimated that between 230,000 and 486,400 of New York's 12.8 million adults can be classified as "problem gamblers" and an additional 89,600 to 269,800 as "probable pathological gamblers."

Gambling and Problem Gambling in Washington State: A Replication Study, 1992 to 1998. Rachel A. Volberg, W. Lamar Moore. Gemini Research, Northampton, MA. May 11, 1999. This study provides one of the few looks at gambling and problem gambling over time. The authors found a small but statistically significant drop in overall gambling activity from 1992 (91%) to 1998 (89%). No significant change was found in either problem or pathological gambling rates.

Gambling and Problem Gambling Among Adolescents in Washington State: A Replication Study, 1993 to 1999. Rachel A. Volberg and W. Lamar Moore. Gemini Research, Northampton, MA. June 25, 1999. This survey of 1,000 Washington residents between the ages of 13 and 17 found that problem and pathological gambling rates remained stable from an earlier survey taken six years before. The study also found a correlation between adolescent gambling and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs.

Pathological Gambling: A Critical Review. Committee on the Social and Economic Impact of Pathological Gambling and Committee on Law and Justice, National Research Council. 1999. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. The committee reviewed available literature on the prevalence of pathological gambling, including a reanalysis of the data studied by Shaffer and colleagues. They estimate that 1.5 percent of the adults in the U.S. at some time in their lives have been pathological gamblers, while 0.9 percent have the condition in a given year. While they conclude that men are more likely to be pathological gamblers than women, they find no definitive data available on other population subgroups, and urge continued tracking on a national level.

Prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in Switzerland. G. Bondolfi, C. Osiek, F. Ferrero. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2000: 101: 473-475. This survey of 2,526 Swiss households found that 0.8% of adult respondents could be classified as probable pathological gamblers. In addition, 36 percent of pathological and problem gamblers were also classified as probable alcohol abusers compared to 8 percent of those with a SOGS score of less than 3.

Gambling Behaviour in Britain: results from the British gambling prevalence survey Kerry Sproston, Bob Erens and Jim Orford. London: National Centre for Social Research July, 2000. This survey of 7,680 Britons aged 16 or over found pathological gambling rates of 0.8 percent (using SOGS) and 0.6 percent (using DSM-IV). Researchers also found that problem gambling was statistically associated with being male, having a parent with a history of problem gambling, and being in the lowest income category.

Changes in Gambling and Problem Gambling in Oregon: Results from a Replication Study, 1997 to 2000. Rachel A. Volberg. Gemini Research, Ltd. February 2001. (http://www.gamblingaddiction.org) A sample of 1,500 Oregonians found that 0.9 percent met the SOGS criteria for current pathological gambling with an additional 1.4 percent meeting the criteria for current problem gambling. This combined rate of 2.3 percent reflects a statistically significant decrease from the rate of 3.3 percent recorded in 1997. Lifetime rates over the same period were statistically unchanged. The survey also found an overall decrease in gambling frequency over the same period.

 Gambling and Problem Gambling in Saskatchewan Harold J. Wynne. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. January, 2002. Problem gambling afflicts a relatively small percentage of Saskatchewan adults, according to this survey of 1,848 residents of the province. Using the recently-developed Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), the survey classified 13.4 percent of respondents as non gamblers, 71.4 percent as non-problem gamblers, 9.3 percent as low risk gamblers, 4.7 percent as moderate risk gamblers, and 1.2 percent as problem gamblers. The study also found that most problem gamblers were aware they had a problem, and most wanted to stop gambling.

 British Columbia Problem Gambling Prevalence Study British Columbia Gaming Policy and Enforcement Branch, 2003. 0.4 percent of British Columbia adults qualify as "severe problem gamblers," according to this survey of 2,500 adults in the province. While this is the lowest rate found among six provinces that have conducted surveys using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, the level of "at risk gamblers" (11.1%) was the highest of the six. Using the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the survey also found that the rate of problem gambling in the province had not changed from the rates found in 1996 and 1993.

 Gambling and problematic gambling with money among Norwegian youth (12-18 years) A. Johansson and K.G. Götestam. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Vol 57(4), p317-321, August 2003. This survey of 3,237 Norwegian youth found a pathological gambling rate of 1.8 percent and a sub-clinical "problem gambling" rate of 3.46 percent. Overall, 18 percent of the sample reported never gambling and another 58 percent reported gambling seldom. The remaining 25 percent gambled weekly. The survey, however, is limited by a response rate of only 45 percent.